Every website will get hacked?
Yes. It is starting to look like every website - even the major ones, will get hacked. It is not a question of “if”, but “when”.
Just now in the news is that Yahoo was compromised and the result was a leak of names, usernames, passwords and other personal data of 500 million accounts - almost twice the United States population.
Here are examples of a few widely known breached websites (up to September 2016 - this list grows constantly):
|Website||Breached accounts, millions|
|VKontakte (Russian Facebook)||93.3 M|
|Ashley Madison (dating site for cheaters)||30.8 M|
|Yahoo (old breach)||0.4 M|
This list is just the publicly known breaches, and I believe there are plenty that go unreported and/or have already happened, but are yet to be known to the public. Many breaches have a lead time (= time it takes from the breach until it becomes public knowledge) in years.
Have my details been leaked online?
HaveIBeenPwned is a free website where you can enter your email to see if your account details have been publicly leaked online.
I know, in this day and age entering your primary email into one more website doesn’t sound good - but the operator of the website is as trustworthy and as responsible as they get.
Different types of websites have different risks
|Type||Example site||Sign-in via||Impact of breach|
|Blog||Tumblr||Low: people probably don’t have much private content in Tumblr blogs.|
|Social||Low: Twitter messages are public anyway (though some people use private messages as well)|
|Social||Yes||Severe: all your “Sign in via Twitter” -websites are compromised as a result.|
|Social||Low: my profile and private messages there are not so sensitive.|
|Social||Severe: your private messages in Facebook should probably be private.|
|Social||Yes||Severe: all your “Sign in via Facebook” -websites are compromised as a result.|
|Dating||match.com||Severe: you probably have privacy-sensisive conversations there.|
|Dating||AshleyMadison||Catastrophic: you being a cheater and your sexual preferences become public knowledge.|
|GMail||Yes||Catastrophic: “Reset password” links are sent to email. Your email gives full access to all your other services.|
|Health||E-health provider||Catastrophic: your health data, possibly sexual history, awkward illnesses will be made public.|
BUT: if you are one of the 59 % who use the same password for different sites, then the impact of even a Tumblr breach could turn up to be catastrophic because the same password lets hackers into your GMail as well (and from there, to other websites).
Note: above are generalizations. People use websites differently, for example you could use Twitter’s private messages a lot more than I do, so you could be a lot more concerned about a breach than I would be. Or you could not have sensitive private messages in Facebook.
You don’t believe me about the catastrophic impact? Read more to learn for example how vulture-like people set up the AshleyMadison records (sexual preferences etc.) for public search and extorted money from the victims. Yes, you could argue the victims being cheaters, they deserved it - and you’d probably be right.
I believe it’s only a matter of time before a huge breach reveals people’s really intimate data like health records. Philippines voting data and US government personnel data have already been exposed. Health record data will be breached, and it will get ugly.
As a user, how do I prepare for this?
- Super important: use different passwords for every service. Password managers help with this, like the free Keepass and others.
- Use strong passwords. Or better yet, passphrases.
- Use multi-factor authentication where possible. Google Authenticator is awesome and works for non-Google websites as well!
- Know the risks (= the data might/will get public) when giving personal data to online websites.
- If your software vendor doesn’t do things responsibly, ask them for improvements.
As a website operator, how do we prevent this and/or prepare for this?
- Take your and your users' security and privacy very seriously. Your users deserve better.
- Support HTTPS. Force HTTPS. CloudFlare handles it all for you, or if you don’t use CloudFlare SSL certs nowadays are free anyway. No excuses!
- Don’t use company-wide accounts for any sensitive systems. Have each employee have a unique account so access can be audited and privileges managed granularly. If this is painful, you are lacking automation.
- Enforce strong and unpredictable passwords for all employees that have access to critical systems. I’ve witnessed first hand companies having systematic (= predictable) master passwords to critical production systems. Even former employees knew the new passwords because they knew the formula the passwords were generated with. A huge no-no!!
- There are many important issues you need to be aware of when building a password reset feature (which you probably need if you are handling user accounts).
- Support multi-factor authentication.
- If your team isn’t aware of issues like SQL injection, cross-site scripting, CSRF, or are not familiar with issues documented in OWASP top ten, you are not being responsible and should not be developing software for other people’s use.
- Keep your systems up-to-date and patched. Huge issues like Heartbleed or Shellshock pop up and it’s your job to follow the changing landscape and react to issues FAST. Even keeping up doesn’t quarantee immunity: see zero-day vulnerabilities.
- Implement rate limiting for logins to prevent brute-forcing passwords online. (PBKDF2 et al. sorta fixes this too..)
- Prepare for the inevitable and protect your users' passwords with current best practices. Hash + salt is nearly useless nowadays. Look into adaptive hashing formulas like PBKDF2.
And most importantly: foster a culture of security in your team. Many companies don’t really care, and I hope those companies go out of business once they lose their reputation - which you can only lose once.
One example of downplaying important issues: SnapChat was warned about a security issue and they called the attack vector “theoretical”. Theory turned into practice and 4.6 million usernames and phone numbers were exposed. SnapChat deserved the hack but the users didn’t. Be responsible!